Before the publication of the Decree of the President of the Russian Federation No. 63 dated 01/23/2024, there was no federal status and the concept of a “large family” in Russia. There were various categories of federal laws that empowered local regional authorities in the subjects of the federation and allowed them to independently determine the status and criteria of a large family.
It was only by 2024 that the general criteria for a large family were defined, in which children of 3 people and under the age of 18 were raised. The new Presidential Decree has streamlined not only the concept of the status of a large family, but also proposes to develop common criteria for all regions of Russia.
What gives the status for a large family
It should be noted immediately that after publication, the Decree of the President of the Russian Federation of May 5, 1992, which also provided for measures to support large families, was canceled. Naturally, over the past 32 years, the current Decree has undergone a huge number of changes and amendments, which is now difficult to compare with the original text.
The main provisions of the Decree of 1992 were nevertheless transferred to the new Decree of 2024. In particular, benefits remain:
- multi-stage discounts on housing and communal services;
- issuance of free land plots;
- issuance of preferential loans;
- receiving preferential subsidies;
- free travel on public urban and suburban transport;
- compensation for the purchase of school clothes;
- free attendance at cultural events;
- assistance in paying for a landline phone;
- admission to kindergarten out of turn;
- free meals;
- free delivery of medicines to children under 6 years of age according to a doctor’s prescription.
Before the Presidential Decree was introduced, there were both federal and regional measures to support large families. It was often necessary for the responsible persons to coordinate in detail the criteria for support measures, since the federal provision had the supremacy.
About pension and labor benefits for large families
The system of benefits for such fathers and mothers with many children is quite motley. We gathered general information in one place.
- If a mother has 3 children, she can retire 3 years earlier than according to the general list.
- If a mother has 4 children, she can retire 4 years earlier.
- If a mother has 5 children, she can retire at the age of 50.
- In order for the mother to be able to exercise the right to retire before the deadline, the youngest child must be at least 8 years old.
- To retire, a mother must have: the number of PKI (individual pension score) is 28.2, the total work experience is 15 years. The information is relevant for 2024.
- Additional points are awarded during the care of a child under the age of 1.5 years. The first child – 1.8 points; the second child – 3.6 points; the third and fourth child – 5.4 points.
- Early retirement conditions are not provided for fathers with many children. However, at the beginning of 2024, there were proposals to consider this issue. Probably, during the validity of Decree No. 63, this issue will be returned to again, and in 2024.
- The father and mother have the right to take an extraordinary vacation at any time convenient for them. In certain cases, it is not necessary to obtain the consent of employers for this.
- The choice of vacation at a convenient time for parents with many children should be respected, provided that the youngest child is under 14 years old.
- A parent with many children cannot be dismissed due to staff reduction or due to inconsistency in their position. The condition is that the parent is the only breadwinner in the family, including at least 1 child under the age of 3 years.
In the latter case, there is an exception: if guilty actions on the part of a parent with many children are still recorded, then the employer has the right to dismiss him, indicating the appropriate reason. Guilt must be documented.
Tax and credit (mortgage) benefits
Before the beginning of 2000, tax benefits were very poorly represented, and mortgage benefits did not exist at all. Now this line of social support is presented quite extensively. As a rule, both tax and mortgage benefits have a federal status, that is, they are accepted for all regions of Russia.
Child tax deduction
Such a deduction is allowed even for one child in the family. But if it is a large family, then the tax deduction will be presented in a different dimension. The standard tax deduction is 1400 rubles, but for the 3rd and subsequent child – 3000 rubles.
For example, there are 3 children in the family and 1 working parent. You can save on personal income tax like this: 5800 rubles. (amount for three children) X 13% =754 rubles per month. The amount of 9048 rubles will be accumulated in 12 months. But if both dad and mom work, then the savings will be decent – 18096 rubles.
The tax deduction rule has a marginal account, which applies to parents of even 1 child up to 350 thousand rubles per calendar year. After this amount, the child tax deduction is terminated.
For a large family, the property deduction provides a per square meter benefit. So, for a country house, a benefit of 7 m2 is added for each child in the family. But for an apartment, room or part of a living space, only 5m2 each.
Deduction for land tax
Regardless of the area of the land plot, a large family will pay land tax minus a benefit of 6 acres.
This social measure has appeared relatively recently. If a large family buys a house, a land plot, an apartment, the state will help repay the loan in the amount of up to 450 thousand rubles. HoweverThis benefit has some drawbacks.
- The third and subsequent child must be born between January 1, 2019 and December 31, 2023.
- The loan agreement must be concluded before July 1, 2024.
- Money can be given only 1 time and only under 1 contract.
- If there is a loan debt of up to 450 thousand rubles, the state will help repay the debt in the amount of 100%.
- If there is a debt of up to 300 thousand rubles, the state will repay this debt, and a large family cannot use 150 thousand rubles a second time.
Support measures in the regions of the Russian Federation
It is almost impossible to bring all measures of support for large families in the regions under a common denominator, since the legislation of the subjects often has different criteria for assessing large families. Nevertheless, there are common features of support measures in the regions of the Russian Federation.
Payment of utilities
The 30% discount will remain after the introduction of Decree No. 63. However, regions will be allowed to set their own criteria for discounts. So, in the Ulyanovsk region, if there are 3 children in the family, the discount will be 50%, if four – 60%, if five – 70%, and if six – 100%.
In St. Petersburg, the criteria for such families will be different. Three children – 30%, four – seven children – 40%, more than 8 children – 50%.
In the Krasnodar Territory, in order to receive this benefit, a large family must have its own expenses in the amount of no more than 15% of the total family income.
Perhaps the most confusing benefit that is planned to be regulated nationwide. In Nizhny Novgorod, large families can take advantage of the benefit of free travel only in a certain period of time, starting from the last Friday in April and until October 1 of this year. In St. Petersburg, free travel is valid for all children under the age of 18, the main condition is that the child must study full–time.
Cash payments to large families
Each region has its own rules and criteria, which provide for a cash payment. Most often, it is:
- Regional family capital.
- Monthly payment for a child from a large family.
- Monetary compensation for school and sports uniforms.
The amount of monetary compensation in all directions is quite varied, starting from 100 rubles and ending with 500 thousand rubles.
Federal legislation defines that large families are entitled to land plots, but the regions set the criteria independently.
Here are some examples.
- In the Moscow and Ulyanovsk regions, all three children must be no more than 18 years old, and if the child is studying, 23 years old.
- You need to live permanently in the Moscow region for at least 5 years. There is no such criterion of settlement in the Ulyanovsk region.
There is also a different picture of what size a land plot should have. All these parameters are regulated by regional legislation.
Visiting museums and cultural events
This benefit is provided in each region independently, and for some reason only large families of their region can claim the benefit. The new Decree proposes to extend the benefit to all families who travel to Russia.
What will be introduced for large families in 2024
Decree of the President of the Russian Federation No. 63 changes the concept of having many children in Russia. There are quite a lot of criteria and explanations in the decree itself.
- A large family will be considered a family in which at least 3 children grow up and are brought up, and the eldest child must be at least 18 years old, and if he studies full–time – 23 years old.
- A single federal standard is being introduced to certify a large family.
- The existing support measures are being unified under a single federal standard.
- Additional support measures will be introduced for large families.
- Regions will be given the right to set their own criteria for having many children, but at the same time, support measures should not be worse or worsen the current status of a large family.
- The Ministry of Labor will be appointed the federal operator to clarify the Presidential Decree.
In 2024, it was announced that the Year of the Family will be valid in Russia, where special attention will be paid to large families. The head of the Ministry of Labor cited interesting statistics. Over the past 10 years, the total number of families with three or more children has reached 2.3 million. About 7.4 million children are raised in such families.
It is assumed that a Unified register of large families will be introduced, which will be a prototype of the existing regional registers of large families.
It is also expected that with the appearance of 3 children in the family, mom and dad will be notified of the social support measures they have taken in their personal account on the ESIA Public Services portal. Additionally, the status of a large family will be notified and assisted at the My Documents MFC and regional social support services.
The federal authorities plan to separate services for families with children and large families (now these services are often combined into one complex, which causes certain difficulties for obtaining a certain category of the population).
The institution of having many children in Russia should become a definite impetus for the growth of self-awareness in Russian society, that only in a large family can you gain confidence in the future.